10,000 Hour Rule

While not specific to animation, the concept of the 10,000 hour rule certainly makes its way through the community, from students, masters, and everyone in between. It’s a perpetual topic for creatives.

The rule, popularized by writer Malcolm Gladwell (my high school art teacher used to read to us from Blink while we mediated…), argues that it takes 10,000 hours for someone to achieve mastery over a particular skill or subject. It’s also often referred to as the ’10 year rule.’ Like any sort of vague creative rule of thumb, there’s plenty of writing both condemning and condoning the idea, and generally its interpretation is simplified and/or misinterpreted to the point of being incorrect.

At the same time, I think with a bit of aforementioned context, it’s still a great jumping off point to discuss bettering oneself.

10,000 Drawings

There is a popular quote in the animation industry that certainly runs adjacent to this sentiment.

We all have 10,000 bad drawings in us. The sooner we get them out the better.

Walt Stanchfield

Walt Stanchfield is most famous for his time as a Disney animator, teaching others. He, along with Eric Larson were responsible for creating the training program at the studios in the 70s that brought up many of the artists who went on to play pivotal roles at Pixar and Disney during the 90s. For the longest time, the bulk of Stanchfield’s lectures were passed around as photocopies, but later were bundled into two published volumes, Drawn to Life Volumes 1 and Volume 2, that have become staples of any animation student’s library.

The same mix of condemning and condoning apply here as well. But let’s take what we need from this concept, ok?

The Deciding Factor

It all boils down to intent.

Now, the actual ten thousand hours of practice spread (most realistically) over ten years is a rough average of course, not meant for everyone and every situation. I don’t think it was ever intended to, to be clear.

And intent–the most important factor of this–tends to get lost in conversations. Its core stresses quality time over quantity of time–not just more time on task, but better time on task. Experts may not log any more hours than you, but they practice differently than your average person, doing what cognitive psychologist Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice.

In Angela Duckworth’s book Grit, she cites the original researcher, Ericsson, who, as she put it “is the world expert on world experts.”

From Duckworth’s book:

First, they set a stretch goal, zeroing in on just one narrow aspect of their overall performance. Rather than focus on what they already do well, experts strive to improve specific weaknesses. They intentionally seek out challenges they can’t yet meet…Virtuoso violinist Roberto Diaz describes “working to find your Achilles’ heel–the specific aspect of the music that needs problem solving.” Then, with undivided attention and great effort, experts strive to reach their stretch goal.

Intent is arguably more important, or at least, could undermine any well-intended but mild effort.

I try to stress to my students the importance of active practice over passive practice. That an hour of focused daily practice will put you miles ahead of a few hours of passive, mindless work, say, throwing a movie on in the background and working while watching that. Now, to be clear, I’m not opposed to having music or something on in the background, but you need to be honest with yourself about how well you personally focus or are distracted by external things like that and your phone. I’ve definitely seen professional artists work with ample distractions around them and still get quality work out, and I’d argue that’s because they’re actually ‘masters’ of their craft or are well on their way. But if you’re still a student in the academic sense (because we’re all students forever, right?), you’re at the very start of your journey. It’s especially important to get started on the right foot.

I’ve heard stories of artists who recognized a certain aspect was a weakness of theirs, like drawing hands or cars, and focusing on that and excelling in that particular area. I remember attending a talk with animator Aya Suzuki years ago and her mentioning having to pass on an opportunity to work on the rebooted Neon Genesis Evangelion films because she’d had limited experience with more mechanical and hard surface designs, and city elements. Looking at her body of work, it’s clear that she opted to focus on more organic elements and character animation, and mastered this area.

Active Vs Passive

What exactly does that look like?

Have you ever read a book or an article and found that you couldn’t recall any of the information you just read? Maybe you got to the end of a paragraph and realized you hadn’t actually read it–you just went through the motions of reading it. But you weren’t actually engaging with and retaining the text.

Or what about watching a film while scrolling on social media? Are you really actively engaged with either screen if your brain is divided between them? In this world of hustle culture and constantly optimizing and hacking our productivity, I can understand where this might seem more beneficial. But in the long run, you’re better off giving each task and skill you want to learn your undivided attention.

Deliberate Practice

It’s about knowing what areas you do want to delve into. As I quoted earlier, it’s about knowing the weaknesses you want to improve.

Ten thousand drawings aren’t helpful if half of them were mindlessly done, if you aren’t learning from each one and cumulatively bringing that knowledge and experience into the next one.

If you’re trying to do this as a career, or just anything beyond a fun hobby, I encourage you to try to be deliberate in your art practice. Practice doesn’t make perfect–perfect practice makes perfect. ‘Perfect’ here is relative and a bit hyperbolic of course, so don’t fixate on that as much as recognizing how you practice is way more important than what we give it credit for.

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Short Stack 6

Welcome to another week of Short Stack. These three in particular are pretty influential for me in terms of the how far people can push the medium. We have a gorgeous stop-motion music video, a solo CG project, and an amazing motion piece made by a team that is constantly pushing boundaries.

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pod sing se avatar the last airbender fan rewatch podcast

Introducing Pod Sing Se: An Avatar the Last Airbender Podcast

I casually mentioned to three of my college friends during a video chat that Avatar: The Last Airbender–Nickelodeon’s groundbreaking 2005 show that we all adore–was coming to Netflix in the US today. A podcast was jokingly mentioned and the more I thought about it the more I though, “Why not us?” I’ve indulged in rewatch podcasts before, curious to see how other people interpreted the same stories and characters and themes. Why not do that with three people I’ve grown up with for almost 12 years now? Once we realized we were all serious, it was on.

Avatar is one of my god-tier fandoms, though I was never as active in the ATLA fandom admittedly… It made a huge impact on me throughout high school and college. It’s a story that’s a contender for my first tattoo. It’s a story that shows me what we’re capable of in animation, in media aimed at kids, in trusting creators.

The Show

Our podcast is pretty straightforward. We watch an episode per week and discuss it. We plan on branching off and doing some deeper dives into specific themes and aspects of the show as well.

We’re just a couple of nerds who like to overanalyze and critique the media we love, and we’re hoping others are interested in that too.

For the first episode, we spent some time introducing ourselves and our relationships with the show, the development of the series, and the 11-minute unaired pilot of the show, which you can watch here before you start to listen.

Pod Sing Se is currently available through Anchor, Stitcher, and Spotify. It’ll take a few days for it to be on Apple Podcasts.

Please give it a listen and join the conversation.

The Cartoon Brew Podcast

This week, animation news site Cartoon Brew launched their new podcast.

Hosted by…me!

I remember being a college student, checking Cartoon Brew daily, grasping for anything I could about this elusive industry, to being in the industry, understanding the news I was reading on a deeper level having gone through some of it myself. It was surreal when my first pieces went up on the site, and when I’ve gotten to go to amazing places for the site, because in every situation it’s been a chance for me to meet people excited about the work they do and me getting to share that.

It’s been chances for me to get to learn more about a thing I love, and I’m grateful.

This podcast hopefully will follow suit.

Our first episode can be found here.

We’re working to get on places like Apple Podcasts and Spotify.

The first episode is about the pandemic’s effects on the animation industry. It’s a LOT of info (and I know, I talk fast, it’s a very valid note!), and I’m sure there are people who are sick of hearing about it. I even wasn’t sure about it, but I also felt it would be weird to not acknowledge it. As a news site, this is literally the biggest story, and the longest, most widespread story. How could we not create this snapshot of this moment? This is the event people will refer back to during this time. I feel like when you’re a kid and you’re in history class, it all feels so aptly distant. This is one of the few times (and sadly none of them have ever been good) that I’ve felt I was living through history, that I knew this was a literal textbook moment.

So I took a snapshot.

And now, I can start taking more.

However long it lasts, I’m happy I could contribute to our understanding of this moment.

The Past and the Future are Our Now: A Look at Environmentalism in Princess Mononoke & Wall-E

Wall-E (2008) is one of the strongest films to come out of the big US feature animation studios. I would argue that it might be one of if not the most important animated feature to come out that decade, including internationally.

Even with the leaps and bounds we’ve made with animation in the last decade, I still feel like if an animated feature at a major US studio with no dialog and a slow, meditative pace for the first 30-ish minutes was pitched it would get turned down immediately or green lit until it drowned in notes and was averaged out to look more like the gag or dialogue driven, quick paced snappy visuals we’re used to. While those are not inherently bad things, their complete takeover of the medium at large just makes Wall-E stand out that much more. (Honestly I’d love to go back to opening weekend now and watch people watch this film in theaters. Did kids get impatient? Or were they fixated on the screen? Were parents confused? Who knows!)

There are so many factors that are out of a director’s control, especially at a big studio, that it’s a miracle when any film gets made, full stop. That Andrew Stanton’s film seems to have come out relatively unscathed and different from any film before (or after) it is a testament to how unique and thematically strong it is.


This post will contain full spoilers for Wall-E and Princess Mononoke.

It will contain slight spoilers for Nausicaa.

You can listen to this article if you want! Click here to jump to the recording.


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Short Stack 1

It finally happened. Somehow, I’ve missed making weekly videos. The last of my 40 weekly thesis film production vlogs went up last July, and I’ve had a nice break from that particular brand of chaos ever since. But now I wanted to start another one I could do that was fun, won’t be as demanding in terms of production and research as some of the other videos I’m planning, and I can help spotlight other creators. So I’d like to introduce Short Stack episode 1:

As mentioned, it’ll be a weekly series where I spotlight three short films you can immediately watch right after my video.

And here are the films mentioned:

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Making an Animated Short Film Week 1

Making an Animated Short Film

So, this site has been very quiet. There’s always stuff cooking in the back kitchen, but only about 2% of it ever seems to make it to the front where you’re all sitting.

That number was about to drop from a dismal 2% down to 0% due to some life changes–I’m going back to school. Having gone through this challenge once before, I know that my time will be extremely limited. Even with lighter coursework this time around, and the lessons I’ve learned from both the first time I attempted this and the last four years of experience at my previous job, I know that this will be a very intense time.

To be completely frank with you, the last time this happened, I had a nervous breakdown in a sound-booth at 4am one day. I phoned my friends who were living in Asia (and therefore wide awake), hysterical. My friend in a lab next door, Allie, came around to check on me. The issue I’d been struggling to fix for the last two hours she was able to solve in 30 minutes. That was the straw that broke the camel’s back. She was so good at that type of thing–still is (we were lucky to have been co-workers these last 4 years!)–but I never seemed to improve, it never seemed to sink in. I think the intense two-year time line of the program was a large factor. I just needed more time for these concepts to sink in, plain and simple. I started attending part-time, and that helped immensely. Before I knew it though, I’d been offered a job I’d have been stupid to not take, and, with an admitted sigh of relief, I ended up having to drop the degree to work full-time.

But it never settled well with me that I didn’t finish. It wasn’t even about that program in particular, so much as getting that master’s degree. I like school. I have mixed feelings about it, the price mostly, but I’ve always been a fan of academia (or what it was intended for, at least). It’s not a perfect thing, but nothing is.

After leaving that program, I thought I’d never get a shot at it again. I’d made my peace, and even started considering OTHER programs, because lord knows I needed to drop another small fortune on school. But I’ve been given a rare opportunity to return to that program.

This fall, I’ll be returning to SVA, and I’ll be picking up the very first project I had pitched and worked on five years ago. I had some things done, but am mostly starting from scratch again with that same story inside me, getting a second wind.

And I had the crazy idea of documenting it all. It’s not going to be pretty. Ohhhh no, no, no. I expect tears, anxiety attacks, and teeny tiny victories here and there. I am hoping for a different experience this time, but I know that certain things are to be expected, for better or worse. Some people will and have already argued that I deserve and should build in some sort of work-life balance, and that just isn’t a thing when you’re making your thesis. It’s honestly a toxic culture, but one that yields results. I’m not saying I condone that environment, but it slowly boils down to a test of endurance. And I learned so much from that first time, I’m much more mentally prepared. I might not remember the particular skills I’ll need, but I have the knowledge and articulation now.

This first video pretty much just summarizes that all, providing the setup. Forty weeks! Can she do it? WHO KNOWS!

I am really sorry if you were interested in this site for all of the reasons I previously set this site up for. Like I said, I think I’d rather shift gears these next ten months rather than go another year without anything on here. And then I’ll shift back. Then I’ll get to do what I should have been doing all along–making videos that celebrate the history and industry of animation.

Please watch if you’d like. If you want to follow along, please feel free to subscribe to the YouTube channel, or sign up for emails whenever I post a new blog entry.

Thank you!

If she can see it, she can be it

Geena Davis Institute Visits WIA

I recently went to a Women in Animation (WIA) NYC chapter meeting that was so informative and encouraging that I wanted to share that on here. While my plans for this site are more focused on the production and analysis of the animated works themselves, one cannot deny the importance of who is involved in this process, both on screen and behind the scenes. Context is important and these things don’t exist separate from one another. A rep from the Geena Davis Institute visited to our group to discuss some frustrating statistics and discuss how we improve them, and director Mark Osborne also discussed his experience working with both the GDI and WIA. And for the sake of full discloser, I recently became the social media coordinator for the WIA NYC chapter, so go follow us on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. ūüėČ

What is WIA?

For the uninitiated, Women in Animation is a non-profit organization that was started in 1995 in order to advocate for,¬† support, and serve as a resource to women working in the animation and related (i.e. games, graphic novels, VFX, motion graphics, etc.) industries. In a perfect world, the need for a group like this would not exist, but as data and movements as recent as #TimesUp have shown us, that is not the case. Regardless of your stance or how important you think representation is on and off screen, you can’t deny what the numbers show us. Research from the Institute and other groups consistently prove that the content we consume has real effects on us. In animation, this is particularly important as most animated content is geared towards younger, developing minds.

There will always be those who (indignantly or otherwise) wonder why there isn’t a Men In Animation, without doing the quick research needed to confirm that statistically it has always has been a boy’s club. A surprisingly good read about this with specificity to animation comes from BuzzFeed of all places (I know, just trust me), in a piece from a few years ago called Inside the Persistent Boys Club of Animation.

And, for the record, men, women, and non-binary people are all welcome to join WIA. The events happen to focus on issues that women tend to face on a proportionately larger scale than men. The events tend to spotlight women creators because for so long it took them that much more effort to get the same recognition. This data becomes even more complicated when you look at intersectional identities, factoring in things like ethnicity, sexuality, disability, and more, both in on-screen depictions and in the production crews.

Geena Davis Institute for Gender in Media

This meeting was particularly interesting for me as it dealt with the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, a non-profit organization that I’ve been following since I first learned about them in 2011 at a post-screening discussion for the documentary Miss Representation. In 2016, the Geena Davis Institute (GDI) opened a NY office, and so we were joined by the NY Council Lead and Advisor Mary Ellen Holden. Mary brought with her an arsenal of damning (but unsurprising) data about the film industry, discussed details and tools the Institute utilizes in their research, and how they use that information to help the film, television, and marketing industries.

One of those tools is called the GD-IQ, the Geena Davis Inclusion Quotient, an algorithm developed in partnership with Google and USC meant to analyze films for their representation. Like the Bechdel test (which¬†wasn’t intended to be any gold standard), it is not a perfect system, and Mary Ellen was honest about its shortcomings. The program incorporates Google’s machine learning technology to improve its readings of films in order to recognize things like when faces are on screen, and determine the sex and race of the person, as well as hear speaking roles and determine whether the voice is male or female.

These shortcomings weren’t any fault of the GDI or the GD-IQ though; it is very hard to gather such data without putting people into boxes, and the tool can only handle so many boxes right now. Already for me, I knew that while this was absolutely a step in the right direction, I wondered about transgender people, or people of mixed race like myself. Mary Ellen was quick to acknowledge the limitations and active work being done to improve it. She also shared the challenges that come with animation in particular, as many of the characters are not human and therefore cannot have their faces analyzed in the same way. At the meeting I also wondered about how this applied to CGI characters in live-action.

One character I brought was Drax, a character that is certainly humanoid (and created with practical makeup FX rather than CG). I brought him up specifically because he is a character who many feel is coded in a way that¬†puts him on the autism spectrum and I wondered about how the tool may one day be able to recognize cognitive and physical disabilities, or determine how they would classify him and other characters where it isn’t explicitly stated. Obviously I’m asking a very recently developed program to analyze the behavioral patterns and nuances of a character, so I can’t hold it against GD-IQ if it’s not quite there yet! You can read all about GD-IQ and some of the statistics it helped generate here. You can download that report as a PDF to have on hand. I keep one at my desk at work.

So. This tool provides automated analysis of screen and speaking time by gender, and screen time by race. Some more features they are looking to incorporate this year is the ability to identify age from audio and video (to help combat ageism), more work with background and crowd scenes (to identify the gender ratio in crowds), use their existing tools for gender, screen speaking time and race for international language content, and text. Mary Ellen was describing a “spellcheck” for gender bias in screenplays, job descriptions, briefs, and more.

In 2019 they hope to be robust enough to start analyzing animated films to determine the race, gender, age, speaking roles, and screen time. As I said, animation can be a bit trickier due to characters not always being the same species among other things. The Geena Davis Institute releases an annual report based on data from the ~50 most successful family-friendly films of that year. You can watch out for the data set for the 2017 calendar year at the end of April (the annual reports are always released the following year, in April).

Mary was forthcoming about her own journey, discussing her time working in TV and acknowledged how her unconscious biases allowed her to approve ads that were problematic, not yet realizing the impact they could have on viewers, women in particular. But now thanks to Geena Davis and others, we have studies and science to back what we’ve already been feeling for a while.

In addition to their own research, clients can commission the Institute to use the GD-IQ and other resources to troubleshoot their own projects, either evaluating past work, or advising for IP and future projects. One of those clients was Mark Osborne.

Director Mark Osborne

The second guest of the night was Mark Osborne, the award-winning filmmaker behind (among other things) the short More, and big animated features Kung Fu Panda and The Little Prince. He is currently working on new projects at Blue Sky Studios, which (full disclosure) is also where I work. Mark was welcomingly candid about his ever-growing awareness to the issues of representation in film and his journey to do better and his experience working with the Geena Davis Institute.

Mark is also a member of WIA, joining after realizing that these problems did actually affect him. He talked about¬†Kung Fu Panda and how he felt that with characters like Tigress and Viper, he wasn’t negatively contributing, but adding. While that is true, GD-IQ revealed that their on-screen and speaking time was very low. From¬†research from 2016:

Even though women played leading roles in action blockbusters such as Star Wars: The Force Awakens (Daisy Ridley), The Hunger Games Series: Mockingjay Part 2 (Jennifer Lawrence), and The Divergent Series: Insurgent (Shailene Woodley), overall, male characters appeared and spoke on screen three times more often than female characters in action films.

Another thing that was called out was the ratio of men and women in the crowds in¬†Kung Fu Panda. Mary Ellen revealed to us that in most crowd shots, usually only 17% of the people are women. So for¬†Kung Fu Panda, we have a pretty neutral film. It doesn’t do anything disparaging against women or minority groups–the women who are there are not as present, but when they are they’re great. Tigress’s struggle is very relatable.

It sounds like that experience coupled with having a young daughter who at the time expressed interest in filmmaking prompted him to actively do more. So when he took on¬†The Little Prince, he was very well aware that he was dealing with a book that has 19 male characters and one woman (who is literally a rose). While he’d already been considering a story outside of the existing material to serve as bookends to the story, he knew that that was an area he could improve on. This helped inspire the little girl and her mother. Just being aware of an ongoing, systemic problem allowed actual change to happen, even with a story that’s 75 years old.

So, What Can I do?

Having an open mind is half the battle. Really, though. It’s an ongoing process. Things that were fine a decade ago can now be seen as problematic. Big change can be slow. It can be hard for people to accept that maybe they’ve had privileges where others have not when they feel like they’ve worked their asses off to get where they were.

Being a good ally and listener. Some times the best thing is to just ask someone if you don’t know about something. Simple as that. Most of my team are straight white men, and I’m more than happy to talk to them and point them to resources I think could help them. I’ve had plenty of interesting discussions about the differences between cultural appropriation vs appreciation, LGBT representations in animated film, and just general character/story talk of course. It all feeds into each other to create stories that are as nuanced and complex as our world (and beyond).

I think the other side of this advice is to also not pressure someone who is from a minority/underrepresented group. Things like tokenism still exist, and some times there’s a pressure that when you speak you speak for ALL of your ethnicity or gender. Not everyone wants that pressure and shouldn’t feel forced to always call things out. A more diverse workforce overall certainly helps with that!

Some times the best thing is to just admit things. “You know what, I’ve never experienced anything like that so I can’t say that I can relate to that. But please tell me about it.” It’s so easy to dismiss something just because you’ve never experienced it first hand. “People don’t really say things like that to Chinese people, do they?” What would you know, you’re not Chinese (unless Miko is reading this. Hi Miko).

Add it in yourself. Ideally, you are in a position where you can influence a project, adding in specificity to, say, your script can help. Specify if a speaking role for a background character is a woman, or that a crowd is half male and half female. If your dealing with a story with mostly male characters see if you can just make some women by changing the names.

Call things out constructively.¬†If you’re not the creative lead on something, that doesn’t mean you can’t find the time and place, and proper channel to voice your concern. If you’re on a production with a story featuring a gay couple and you feel like some of the dialogue seems stereotypical, be sure to voice that. Ideally, if enough people express their concern they will feel that it’s a note that has to be addressed, but if you’re able to call it out while also offering suggestions or someone they can talk to hear about authentic experiences they may be more receptive. Change can be daunting, but if you start them off right it will be that much easier to enact.

Call things out early.¬†These things need to nipped in the bud, before changes become impossible due to budget/production/scheduling. Calling things out early can ensure a production can do any research they may need to (i.e. consulting a behavioral therapist for a character with a cognitive disability) or can redo some crowd shots with more proportionate representation. So often we hear about controversies in ads and such and you can’t help but wonder how no one thought this was a problem and how it got so far along the chain of command only to be blasted on Twitter. That’s because no one says anything and then it becomes too late even if someone did. This also shows the value of a diverse workforce who will collectively have more varied experiences.

Don’t shame people for past mistakes. It doesn’t help. If someone is willing to hear you out and learn than that progress should be celebrated. That was something Mary Ellen was particularly proud of–that they don’t shame companies when they reach out. Because reaching out to the GDI shows a lack of awareness of the problem, and a step in the right direction. Past mistakes should be used as teachable moments, but not something to never let someone move past.

Think of rebuffs in advance. In the same way you can bring up an issue and supply a solution, you can sort of expect the kind of pushback that you’d get from people and be armed with the facts to counter them. There are some people who are instantly put off the moment you start discussing such things, complaining about “PC culture” and people being “overly sensitive” or that feminists hate men. There’s just IMMEDIATE pushback some times. That’s why it’s usually in your best interest to have your ducks in a row. Knowledge is power. The Geena Davis Institute has so many statistics you can pull up. Of course, you can’t spend your life trying to inform people who just refuse to listen. There are so many counter-examples and different ways to spin something. An example I used once was an uncomfortable discussion I had about Black Lives Matter, where someone very seriously told me that it didn’t make sense because all lives matter. You try to argue that statistically black people are disproportionately mistreated by law enforcement and show them reputable resources disputing arguments. For me, it boiled down to tigers. When someone says “Save the Tigers” they aren’t saying “But don’t save the whales!” You are focusing on the group that in that moment is more heavily affected. That’s why feminism is called feminism–it’s meant to create equality by raising up the group that’s underrepresented.

Usually people need time to accept and understand that they might have had their own subconscious biases, or recognize that some of their own privileges made them unable to relate to someone else until something specific draws attention to it. Maybe an able-bodied person learns how hard it is for wheelchair bound people to navigate their city only after they are in an accident and are in a wheel-chair.

Support women and non-binary creators.¬†Hire them. Buy their art. Share their work. Boost their words, their work. Go see those films opening weekend. Read stories about characters with completely different experiences and ideals than your own. Diversify the media you consume. Listen to others. Check your privilege. Do better. That’s all any of us can do.

Why Should We Study Animation? Video

Animation was not always something that I looked at so rigorously. It wasn’t until I got to college and began studying animation–both as an artist and as an academic–that I began to see¬†it from a brand new point of view, and my love for it deepened and expanded in so many ways. This site is a direct response to that, so I’m so happy and proud to share the first in what I hope are many, many videos delving into the wide expanse of this artform that I love so much. Please check it out, and let me know what you think!

While there is a lot more I could say on this topic, I tried to keep this video short (though it’s still a bit longer than your average video). I thought that this would give people a good idea about the angle that I am approaching animation from, as well as (hopefully) some new ways to think about the medium. If you want to hear more about my goals with this website, you can listen to a short podcast I recorded explaining it in our very first blog post.